57mm gun ww2

The M18 recoilless rifle is a 57 mm shoulder-fired, anti-tank recoilless rifle that was used by the U. Recoilless rifles are capable of firing artillery -type shells at reduced velocities comparable to those of standard cannon, but with greater accuracy than anti-tank weapons that used unguided rockets, and almost entirely without recoil.

Bofors 57 mm L/70 naval artillery gun

The M18 was a breech-loadedsingle-shot, man-portable, crew-served weapon. It could be used in both anti-tank and anti-personnel roles. The weapon could be both shoulder fired or fired from a prone position. The T3 front grip doubled as an adjustable monopod and the two-piece padded T3 shoulder cradle could swing down and to the rear as a bipod for the gunner. The most stable firing position was from the tripod developed for the water-cooled Browning M machine gun.

Army's Artillery Section was working on a mm recoilless cannonbased on captured models of the German At the same time, there was a freelance research by the U.

Army's Infantry Section of a man-portable recoilless 57 mm cannon by two engineers, named Kroger and Musser. Instead of a blowout plug, the infantry section's recoilless cannon used a British development, Ordnance, RCL, 3. Another unique innovation was the use of pre-engraving bands on the 57 mm projectile that engaged the barrel's rifling.

The "Kromuskit", as the new 57 mm weapon was called a word play on the engineers' family names was officially designated the T15 and first tested in November The tests proved that the Infantry Section's concept for a recoilless weapon was superior to the Artillery Section's concept and the development of the mm weapon was canceled.

The cannon and 57 mm ammunition were placed in mass production. The weapon was crewed by a two-man team, the gunner and the loader, who fired it from either a prone, kneeling, or standing position. It could also be awkwardly carried, fired from the shoulder and reloaded by one man in an emergency, fired prone from the extended T3 monopod and bipod, or fired from a fixed position on a cradle mounted on the MA1 machine gun tripod.

The weapon was carried in a T27 Cover with two padded shoulder straps, designed to be simultaneously carried by two men in line with the straps slung over their shoulder on one side.


Ammunition was packed four shells to a wooden crate, each crate weighing about 40 lbs and had a volume of 0. Three 57 mm recoilless rifle shells could be carried per M6 rocket bag designed for the 2. The first fifty [9] production M18 57 mm cannons and ammunition were rushed from the factories to the European theater in March Further examples were subsequently sent to the Pacific Theater.

The first combat the new cannon saw was with the U. The only effective way to knock out German tanks was a clean shot to the rear of the tank or to cause malfunctions by hits on the seams or joint of the tanks such as the gun turret elevation joint of the main gun, junction points of the turret and hull which would cause burn over of working mechanism and produce jamming and finally a hit on the tracks to immobilize a tank. They could then be destroyed by infantry Bazooka team, anti-tank guns or field artillery.

In the Pacific Theater, the new lightweight 57 mm cannon was an absolute success as "pocket artillery" for the soldiers of U.In the first year of the war for the US, an up dated anti-tank gun was a necessity because only the obsolete 37mm was in service. The most expedient answer was to copy the British 6 Pdr.

Anti-Tank Gun. The wheel type was changed and unlike some British 6 Pdr.

57mm gun ww2

Guns there was not a muzzle brake. A different sight and sight mount are used on the US designed and produced pieces. Several variants of the US 57mm exist but we have an M1. The firing mechanism fits into the breech with interrupted screw threads.

This mechanism is very much like the ones for the British 2 Pdr. AT Gun and the British 25 Pdr. The piece has an elevation hand wheel but free traverses. Traverse is controlled by the gunner keeping his shoulder within the shoulder stock of the gun. As he moves from side-to-side the tube traverses.

The carriage has a split trail and a shield with a wavy cut-out top.

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This is much like the British 3. Likely, this feature is to brake up the silhouette of the gun. The recoil is hydro-spring. Despite being rarely seen in combat, there is additional armor plating available for the 57mm. These two pieces fit into the channels on the ends of the axial and give the crew additional side protection. Sometimes, these shields were carried in the mine racks of the Half-Track prime mover for the 57mm.

It and the British 6 Pdr. Leon and Ralph Lovett along with William May restored this piece in the mids.

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Back to Main. All images, research, and text are sole property of Ralph Lovett.It was also used as the main armament for a number of armoured fighting vehicles. Although designed before the start of the war, it did not reach service until the North African Campaign in April There, it replaced the 2-pounder as an anti-tank gun, allowing the 25 pounder gun-howitzer to revert to its intended artillery role.

Limitations of the existing 2-pounders were apparent even as the gun entered service and an effort was made to replace it with a much more capable weapon starting as early as Guns of this calibre had been employed by the Royal Navy from the late 19th century and manufacturing equipment was available.

SU-57 (57mm GMC T48 in Soviet Service)

The gun design was complete by but the carriage design took until The loss of equipment — most of the heavy equipment of the British Expeditionary Force BEF was left behind in France during Operation Dynamo — and the prospect of a German invasion made re-equipping the army with anti-tank weapons an urgent task, so a decision was made to carry on the production of the 2-pounder, avoiding the period of adaptation to production and also of re-training and acclimatisation with the new weapon.

It was estimated that 6-pounders would displace the production of 2-pounders. Unlike the 2-pounder, the new gun was mounted on a conventional two-wheeled split trail carriage. Optional side shields were issued to give the crew better protection but were apparently rarely used. The 6-pounder was used where possible to replace the 2-pounder in British tanks, requiring work on the turrets, pending the introduction of new tanks designed for the 6-pounder.

The Valentine and Crusader both needed to lose a crew member from the turret. Tanks designed to take the 6-pounder were the troubled Cavalierthe Cromwell and the Centaur.

Although the 6-pounder was kept at least somewhat competitive through the war, the Army started development of a more powerful weapon in The aim was to produce a gun with the same general dimensions and weight as the 6-pounder but with improved performance. The first attempt was an 8-pounder of 59 calibre length but this version proved too heavy to be used in the same role as the 6-pounder.

A second attempt was made with a shorter 48 calibre barrel but this proved to have only marginally better performance than the 6-pounder and the program was cancelled in January The 6-pounder was followed into production by the next generation British anti-tank gun, the Ordnance QF 17 pounderwhich came into use from February As a smaller and more manoeuvrable gun, the 6-pounder continued to be used by the British Army for the rest of World War II and for about 20 years afterwards.

Since there was sufficient lathe capacity, the longer barrel could be produced from the start. The M1A2 introduced the British practice of free traverse, meaning that the gun could be traversed by the crew pushing and pulling on the breech, instead of solely geared traverse, from September The M1 was made standard issue in the Spring of A more stable carriage was developed but not introduced.

About one-third of production over 4, guns was delivered to the UK and guns were sent to Russia through Lend Lease. When the United States re-armed and re-equipped Free French forces for the Normandy landings, their anti-tank units received American-made M1s. American shell designs and production lagged behind the introduction of the gun once it was accepted for service and so, at first, only AP shot was available.

The HE shell was not available until after the Normandy landings and UK stocks were procured to cover its absence. Its use by regular US Army front-line units was discontinued in the s. The 6-pounders and the US-built M1 of which 4, guns were received were issued to the Royal Artillery anti-tank regiments of infantry and armoured divisions in the western theatres four batteries with 12 pieces each and later in the war to the six-gun anti-tank platoons of infantry battalions.

The Far East theatres had lower priority and different organisation, reflecting the lower tank threat. The gun was also employed by Commonwealth forces in formations similar to the British. A High Explosive shell was produced for use against un-armoured targets.The ZiS-4 was a version of the gun meant to be installed in tanks. In the beginning of the design office of V.

Grabin received a task from the Artillery Department to develop a powerful anti-tank gun. The head of this department Marshal Kulik and its subordinates estimated that the use of heavily armoured tanks by the USSR in the Winter War would not have gone unnoticed in Nazi Germany and would lead to the development of similar fighting machines there. There is also a chance that the department was influenced by the German propaganda about the experimental multi-turreted "supertank" NbFzie.

However, the decision also had a downside: this calibre was a new one to the Red Army so the manufacturing of the projectile had to be started from scratch. Production began on 1 Junebut on 1 December it was stopped by Marshals N.

Voronov and G.

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Govorov, their explanation being that ZiS-2 shells penetrated straight through weakly-armoured German tanks from one side to the other without doing much damage internally. Other possible reasons for the decision were the high cost of the gun and problems with shell production.

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By that time pieces had been built. The production lines were switched to manufacturing of the ZiS-3 Some anti-tank regiments also received the ZiS-3 which was able to defeat any German vehicle until late Appearance of the heavy Tiger I and then the Panther changed the balance in favour of the Germans. A more powerful gun was needed and on 15 June the ZiS-2 once again entered service as mm anti-tank gun model Until 9, units were produced. It is a automated-action gun with vertical block breech.

When firing the block opens and closes automatically, the loader only has to put a round into the receiver. Due to this feature the rate of fire can reach 25 rounds per minute. The Split-trail carriage with gunshield was shared with the ZiS-3 divisional gun. The gun can also be attached to a limber and towed by a team of six horses. ZiS-2s are equipped with PP1—2 panoramic sight. Guns captured by the Germans were given the designation 5.

57mm gun ww2

The ZiS-2 was also mounted on a few vehicles. In about a hundred ZiS-2 guns were mounted on Komsomolets armored tractor chassis to create the ZiS tank destroyer. None were accepted for production. There was also a tank gun version of ZiS-2 called ZiS Inin an attempt to improve the anti-tank performance of the T tank members of the Morozov Design Bureau experimentally equipped it with the ZiS Only a small number of these T tanks were built and used as tank hunters. The idea resurfaced in after the Battle of Kursk because Germany fielded heavily armoured Tiger and Panther tanks.

Only a limited number of the T equipped with a slightly modified version of the ZiS-4M gun with a new breech to simplify production were produced.Anti-tank guns are typically high-velocity guns designed to fire anti-tank shells. They are usually designed to be easily transported and concealed to maximize responsiveness and surprise. Self-propelled anti-tank guns are anti-tank guns mounted on vehicles. Sometimes lightly armored, and often fitted into a turret, they are none-the-less not tanks or assault guns and simply enhance the mobility of anti-tank guns.

They are also capable of providing direct fire support. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Categories : Lists of artillery Anti-tank guns. Namespaces Article Talk.

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M1 AT (57mm Gun M1)

Nazi Germany. Soviet Union. Type 94 37 mm. United States. Ordnance QF 2 pounder. United Kingdom. Type 1 anti-tank gun.Production of the baseline 57 mm Mark 1 variant began in and was initially used to equip smaller coastal patrol craft and fast attack craft. The gun is remotely controlled by a fire-control computer; as a redundancy measure, however, the crew can also operate the gun using instrument panels that are either on or in direct contact with the gun.

The gun was upgraded and improved several times, first the Mark 2 in which drastically lowered the weight as well as introduced new servo stabilizers. The Mark 3 came in with modifications made to enable the smart ammunition developed.

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However, as jet aircraft became more prevalent in the post-war era, it was clear the gun did not have the rate of fire needed to effectively deal with these threats. Bofors' engineers considered two solutions to the problem. One was to greatly increase the firing speed of the 40 while also incorporating any minor changes that would improve its range.

The other was to design a larger weapon with much greater effective range and a larger explosive load that offset a lower firing rate. With minor modifications, the Mark 1 guns could use ammunition developed for the Mark 2 gun.

This new design retained the Mark 2 gun mount, rate of fire and ammunition capacity and has another 1, rounds stowed in the standby rack beneath deck.

57mm gun ww2

Also, a new optional low radar profile also known as low radar cross-sectionor RCS stealth mounting was developed, this allows the gun to be hidden from radar and plain sight when not in use. This increases the flexibility and effectiveness of the gun system, which has further reduced the reaction time of the gun and it is possible to choose ammunition mode at the moment of firing, giving it the ability to switch rapidly between surface targets, air targets, and ground targets.

Answering a U. It is fitted with a multi-mode imaging semi-active seeker that can be guided through laser designation or autonomous targeting by downloading image of the target prior to firing; ORKA retains the 3P multiple fuzing modes. In Decemberthe U. Improvements included a higher rate of fire, the use of new munitions including an improved proximity fuse, water cooling for the gun tubes and a new electro-hydraulic system for rapid training and elevation.

Finland, Malaysia, Norway, Indonesia, Singapore and the former Yugoslavia are among the countries that adopted the Mark 1. The Mark 2 was a lighter weight version, which utilized a new servo system. Bofors designed the gun in and it entered active service on the Stockholm -class corvette in The gun was partly dual-purpose in the sense that it is accurate and agile enough to destroy sea-skimming missiles.

The Mark 3 is the latest version of the gun. Bofors designed it in and it entered service in The gun uses smart ammunition but can also fire the same ammunition as the Mk 2.

The stealth variant has a reduced radar profile, in part by hiding the gun barrel when it is not firing. Also, the gun has a small radar mounted on the gun barrel to measure muzzle velocity for fire control purposes and can change ammunition types instantly due to a dual-feed system.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of Naval artillery.Despite over 15, M1 57mm AT guns produced, the U. When Britain required manufacturing muscle in World War 2 it turned to American factories and relied on Lend-Lease for its supply as it faced the might of the Axis powers on battlefields across the world.

Manufacture of the gun began a year later and all of this early supply was shipped overseas. The effectiveness of the design was not lost on American warplanners who found themselves requiring an effective tank-killing weapon all their own as the existing 37mm models were beginning to show their limitations against stouter enemy armor.

Changes were introduced to the 57mm M1, mainly in the carriage component that utilized American wheels and tires, and this gave rise to the "M1A1" model. An improved "free-traverse" capability added in mid generated the "M1A2" designator and an all-new carriage design greeted the "M1A3" of This model featured a new towing hook and became the initial M1 version to be officially taken into service by the U.

The carriage component saw further changes to produce the "M2" of and "M2A1" of - the former had caster wheels on the right trail arm, relocated trail handles and an all-new utility box while the latter introduced an improved elevation gear arrangement. The series eventually superseded the existing stock of 37mm M3 guns still in service with the U.

Army and saw their first combat actions in North Africa. AP projectiles were the only ammunition available to M1 crews and this limited the flexibility of the armament against softer targets. It proved only marginally effective against most of the frontline German armor which had graduated from light-and-medium tanks to medium-and-heavy tanks as the war rolled into Nevertheless, the weapon saw service through to the end of the war with about 15, of the type produced in all.

After the war, the 57mm M1 line was quickly retired as more effective measures for stopping enemy tanks became available. Year: Crew 6. Production 15, Units. Length: 8. Weight: 1 tons 1, kg; 2, lb. This is a towed artillery piece. Maximum Range: 3 miles 5 km. Showcased performance values pertain to the M1 AT 57mm Gun M1 production model; Compare this entry against any other in our database. Ammunition: Dependent upon ammunition carriers.

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